In the ten years since the influential Ross et al. study, nearly 50 works containing data on the false consensus effect have been published.  Theoretical approaches have also been broadened. The theoretical perspectives of this period can be divided into four categories: (a) selective exposure and cognitive availability, (b) attention and focus of attention, (c) logical processing of information and (d) motivational processes.  In general, researchers and designers of these theories believe that there is not a single correct answer. Instead, they admit that there is overlap between theories and that the consensus effect is most likely due to a combination of these factors.  This theory is closely related to availability heuristics, suggesting that the perception of similarity (or difference) is influenced by the ease with which these properties can be extracted from memory.  And as one might expect, the similarities between oneself and others are easier to recall than differences. This is partly because people generally associate with those who look alike to themselves. This exhibition selected to similar people may skew or limit the “sample of information on the true diversity of opinions in the broader social environment.”  Because of selective exposure and heurist availability, it is natural that similarities prevail in one`s own thoughts.  Clinical examinations and mammography are presented in Supplementary Information Resource 4 as part of MRI study comparisons with the United States.
With the exception of one study that showed similar small estimates by MRI (0.16 cm) and US (0.06 cm) (Guarneri et al., 2011), the absolute values of MD in MRI studies were lower than those of alternative tests. Grouped MDs and 95% LOA are summarized in Table 2 and Figures 2, 3, 4. There is no evidence of heterogeneity for MRI scans in any of the scans or for the United States (all I2-0%). Results from two studies (Segara et al, 2007; Guarneri et al, 2011) showed a small similar overestimation of the size of the pathological tumor by MRI and the United States (0.1 cm MD for both tests), with comparable LOA. MDs and LOA combined in two studies (Prati et al, 2009; Wright et al., 2010) were larger for mammography (0.4, 95% LOA 7.1 to 8.0 cm) than for MRI (0.1 cm, 95% LOA 6.0 to 6.3 cm), with moderate heterogeneity in MD for dermammography (I2-39%). Pooled estimates for MRI and clinical trials in four studies (Partridge et al, 2002; Segara et al, 2007; Prati et al, 2009; Wright et al, 2010) led to significant heterogeneity for this last test (Q-20.59, df-3, P-0.0001); I2-85%); Three studies reported that the clinical study underestimated the size of the pathological tumor, and one study reported the opposite.