On 11 March 2011, in Fukushima, Japan, power and cooling of three Fukushima Daiichi reactors were halted following an earthquake and a major tsunami. The nuclear accident resulted in 3 nuclear meltdowns, 3 hydrogen explosions and radioactive contamination releases. The release of radiation forced the government to make about 154,000 people. The disaster was the most serious nuclear accident since the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. On May 18, 1974, India conducted Operation Buddha Smiling – or Pokhran-I, the country`s first successful nuclear test. The event made India the first country to conduct nuclear tests outside the five nuclear-weapon States recognized under the non-proliferation zone  and had negative consequences in india`s strategic relations with the current major powers, particularly the United States. However, despite the bilateral and multilateral sanctions that followed, India has in the meantime made clear its decisions to pursue its nuclear ambitions. Yet there was a sense of isolationism that a born out of the overall reaction to India`s nuclear tests. The combination that India is a non-signatory to the non-proliferation treaty and its nuclear tests has created a precarious situation for New Delhi. One of the most direct effects of the 1974 test was the creation of the NSG in 1974.  The priority objective of the NSG is the so-called “non-proliferation” principle adopted in 1994, whereby a supplier authorizes the transfer only if it is satisfied that it would not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons, despite other provisions of the NSG guidelines.  Subsequently, on 11 and 13 May 1998, India`s successful nuclear tests forced the world to recognize India`s adherence to nuclear regulations.
Although the first reaction to the tests was international condemnation, it led to a strategic dialogue between Jaswant Singh, then India`s foreign minister, and Strobe Talbott, assistant secretary of the United States, to establish a new relationship between the two countries.   Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan “Modi flies to Japan, carries long, pending nuclear agreements,” Outlook, 10 November 2016.  “Civil nuclear cooperation important `pillar` of India-France engagement: Sushma Swaraj,” The Economic Times, 17 November 2017 3. The meeting was held as part of the Joint Japan-India Declaration (PDF) signed at the Japan-India Summit in September 2017. Strengthening bilateral cooperation on the peaceful use of nuclear energy was discussed at the meeting. Since 2005, when India signed a nuclear agreement with the United States, it has made nuclear cooperation with other countries an important aspect of its diplomatic initiatives. At present, India has civil nuclear agreements with 14 countries that are in different letter and spirit.  India has the potential to significantly expand the sector by strengthening its existing partnerships and forging new partnerships. This is necessary to complement its growing energy needs while maintaining its leading position in the changing world order. Finally, India`s rise in geopolitical power is partly driven by its deeper commitment to the nuclear energy sector and its presence in the global civilian nuclear framework. India and France have a long history of cooperation since the 1950s. They shared a strategic partnership through diplomatic exchanges and bilateral meetings on trade and civil nuclear energy.
France has played an important role in the advancement of Indian nuclear technology. The French Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) offered India technical cooperation on civil nuclear innovation in 1950, which began in 1951, with the two countries signing a bilateral agreement “for the research and construction of beryllium-moderate reactors.”  France continues to make India a strong supporter of global nuclear cooperation.